Wonderful exhibition !!! Signor Gulielmo Pittachio, the sublime wonder of the world!!! condescends to inform the public at large, and his friends in particular, that he has now opened his grand hall of exhibitions at Westminster, with a grand display of his astonishing and magnificent deceptions, 1794.
Houghton Library, Harvard University
Johann Michael Rottmayr c. 1705-1708
Allegory of Architecture
18thcenturylove: Gather around kids, and let me tell you something about the Boston Massacre… (if you’re not American, you can keep scrolling, it’s ok)
On the night of March 5, 1770, a squad of British soldiers, part of the 29th regiment stationed in Boston, fired their weapons at a hostile mob of colonists in King Street. Five people were killed and at the moment of their deaths were raised to martyr status for the revolutionary cause. Shortly after, the soldiers and their captain were arrested, imprisoned, and put on trial for murder and conspiracy. However, the commander of the troops in Boston believed that his men had been deliberately provoked. Although he was not a Loyalist, Counsel for the Prisoners John Adams (yes that John Adams) supported this argument and believed the blame lay more on the civilians involved than on the soldiers. For John Adams, the “Boston Massacre” was the justifiable product of an attack upon a group of eight recognizably young, inexperienced, armed soldiers by a considerably large crowd of violent, combative, unarmed civilians.
It was earlier that evening that Capt John Goldfinch was accosted by a disorderly apprentice and this disrespect had angered Hugh White, a private in the 29th Regiment. White later encountered this man and after lecturing him for his behavior, was only answered with insult. Private White then struck the man causing a small crowd to form. During the trial, witness Samuel Clark testified that while he was not present at the shooting, he had spoken to White only moment prior to the incident. Instead of appearing agitated, White had politely asked him “how we all did at home,” which may be proof that White did not have any particular formulations in mind before the quarrel.
The crowd as it gathered to further accost Private White was, at the moment, totaled at about thirty people. Some threw snowballs and oyster shells and other carried staves. Witness Edward Langford testified that at this time, he told several boys in the crowd to leave the sentry alone and knew even then that “something would come of this.” This statement alone John Adams believed proved that “he thought there was danger, or at least the sentinel in fact was terrified and did think himself in danger.” Out of fear, White called for support with six grenadiers arriving in response. Langford stated that he was unable to hear Private White give the call for assistance although being “pretty loud,” yet was somehow able to later hear Captain Preston give the supposed order to fire. Despite this contradiction in testimony, Langford admits that the soldiers did not appear to have taken specific aim at any of the victims. This provided further ground for disregarding the idea of British premeditation.
There were now a total of 8 soldiers, including Capt Preston, who were becoming increasingly anxious as the crowd grew to over a hundred. Amid the confusion, three townspeople drew near Capt Preston, among them Theodore Bliss, who dared the soldiers to shoot. It was immediately after, as Ebenezer Bridgeham testified, that “ice or snow” was thrown and that the “guns were struck several times,” with clubs and sticks. Witness James Bailey also declared he saw several members “heaving pieces of ice, large and hard enough to hurt any man, as big as your fist.” In a tragic twist, what might have been a ball of ice was thrown from the crowd and struck the muzzle of Private Montgomery’s musket. Prompted by the resulting misfire, the other soldiers fired into the crowd, killing five people.
As John Adams defended the soldiers and addressed the court, a man had to be “divested of all human passions if you do not think him at the least provoked, thrown off guard or thrown in to the fury, by such treatment as this.” Regardless of the atmosphere in Boston, the law was clear that if a man, whether he was a soldier or civilian, felt himself endangered, he had the right to kill in self-defense. Taking into account an assault of this scale and the instability of the testimonies of the prosecuting witnesses, six of the soldiers were declared innocent but two were convicted of manslaughter for identified to have fired directly into the crowd. They were given the reduced sentence of having their thumbs branded in open court.
However, this is not to say that the extreme actions by the Bostonians were premeditated, but by calling the victims of the “massacre” a “mob.” John Adams insisted that the jury face the reality of what had occurred. Despite how traitorous this accusation appeared to his peers, he proved that this one particular Boston crowd was dangerous, but not a reflection of Boston as a whole. As much at fault as any of the individuals was the law itself, or at least popular notions about the law: 1) the 18th c. legal theory that made political mobs quasi-legal 2) the contemporary constitution that entrusted the keeping of the peace to soldiers without giving them authority to employ force 3) the legal misconception widely held in Boston that the king’s troops could never fire upon British subjects.
The acclaimed biofeedback horror adventure game that gets more challenging as you get scared, honing your ability to manage anxiety.
69 hours left!
Oh how I long to
Return to a time when the
Silence was because
So heatherleigh02 got Coriolanus and I got Beatrice…
Me: Awwww lovely Beatrice will come save you and we can go get drunk.
Heather: BUT WHAT ABOUT MOTHER
Me: You and Hamlet can talk about MOTHER. I AIN’T TOUCHIN THAT.
Heather: Mother..;_; Hamlet is screwed up. At least my mom doesn’t think I’m crazy.
Me: Hamlet isn’t crazy!…ok he’s supah crazy…but that’s because he couldn’t tell Horatio how he truly felt! You know how that is! Yes I saw that kiss. Everyone saw the gay. WE SEEN IT.
Heather: And my woman is ten times better than Ophelia. Also who needs friends when your enemies love you more. TO BATTLE!!
Me: I’m working on Ophelia. She’s been to a therapist for anthomania.
Heather: I can empathize. People always telling you how to behave, where to go, a man like Hamlet always shouting at you. My people did the same thing. All I want is to rule Rome how I see fit! Is that so much to ask?
Me: Noooooo of course not! You would lead Rome into a golden age! http://media.tumblr.com/tumblr_llhpitMWR81qfmhbw.gif
Heather: And I would lead Rome into a golden age. You know, as soon as I rebuild the damn place. And you. Beatrice. You should see a marriage counselor. The relationship you have with your husband isn’t exactly in its golden age.
Me: Psh gurl don’t give a f***. Hm a mucked up marriage or a mucked up empire? Which is worse? Now go have a cup of hot cocoa that your mommy made you before you get your throat cut. (Been hanging out with Macbeth)
Heather: Any king will tell you, a mucked up empire is better to have than a mucked up marriage. Death is more welcomed than a pissed off spouse. Mucked up marriages have brought down empires.
Me: This is true! But not mine. (Aside: OMG GO AWAY.) Sry this soothsayer keeps knocking at my door trying to sell me something.
Heather: I got one today too. They’re as annoying as children.
Me: *gasp!* terrifying thought! A PLAGUE OF SOOTHSAYERS.
Heather: Oh God. And all day you’d just hear “I KNOW SOMETHING YOU DON’T KNOW. I KNOW SOMETHING YOU DON’T KNOW.” Ugh, just stab me in the back and get it over with already.
Me: hold on just a sec….(Aside: WILL YOU STOP- NO JUST - AUGH! *slams door*) He’s just saying it over and over! Something about Benedick, I dunno. Btw, party at the Senate tonight. I hear Menenius is coming. Be my +1? Invitation says bring a knife…I guess there will be lots of cake? OH GOD NOW THE DAMN SOOTHSAYER IS WAILING. (ASIDE!: WILL YOU SHUT UP?)
Heather: Mine keeps warning me about the peoples anger. And like, sometime in the near future this guy Brutus will do some crazy shit? Whatever, mother is calling me for breakfast. Yeah, I’ll be your +1. But if one person asks to see my battle scars I’m out of there.
Me: I’ll make sure no one asks as long as you make sure Lady Macbeth doesn’t sit next to me. Desdemona is cool though. She can stay.
Heather: Oh good, Desdemona is coming! I’ve been meaning to return her handkerchief. Found it the other day. Silly woman is always losing it.
Psyche and Cupid
François Gérad cira 1798
Gaspare Diziani, A Reclining Satyr, 18th century